I have recently finished one great book and one great article on Accountable Talk and Classroom Discussions.

*Mathematical Thinking and Learning*,

*10*, 313-340.

*Classroom Discussions: Using math talk to help students learn.*California: Scholastics. 2009.

**Implementing Classroom Discussions**

**Establishing and Maintaining a Respectful, Supportive Environment:**

**Focusing Talk on the Mathematics:**

*plan your questions carefully*

*Have good formative assessment happening at all times*

*Make a plan as to what big ideas you want to cover*

*Anticipate problems and possible solutions*

**Providing for Equitable Participation in the Classroom Talk:**

**Types of Talk Moves:**

**Talk Moves That Help Students Clarify and Share Their Own Thoughts**

**Talk Moves That Help Students Orient to Others’ Thinking**

**Talk Moves that Help Students Deepen Their Reasoning**

**Talk Moves That Help Students Engage with Others’ Thinking**

**1: Anticipation (P.322)**

**2: Monitoring students’ work (P. 326)**

**3: Selecting student work (P.327-328)**

**4: Purposefully sequencing them in discussion (P. 329)**

**5: Helping students make mathematical sense (P.330-331)**

**Trouble Shooting Talk in the Classroom**

**My Students won’t Talk:**

**First ask yourself:**our my students silent because they have not understood a particular question? –> sometimes they need to hear the question a few times and have time to think

*if this is the case then give students time to think (*

**wait time**is very important)*also revoice it or have another student revoice the question*

**Second they may be shy or unsure of their abilities:**

*If this is the case you may need to revisit strategies for talking*

*Think-pair-share**is an excellent way to get kids comfortable to talk*

*it will also take time to get kids*

**comfortable****.**

*Wait time**again is important as it holds students accountable. Also making them feel comfortable and that mistakes are okay will assist with this difficulties*

**The same few students do all the talking:**

**Wait-Time:**

*I know that I say this a lot but it allows the other students to think and then participate while making the ones who always participate*(it will feel awkward at first but wait as long as you can)

**Have students Revoice**:

*This is good strategy to bring validity to students answers and encourage others to talk*

**Conferencing with the ones who talk a lot:**

*You also don’t want to ignore the ones who talk all the time. You can talk to them and let them know that you are not ignoring them but are just trying to allow others to participate.*

**Turn-Taking/ Random presenters/ group discussions:**

*These are all roughly the same strategy. It allows you to have certain presenters share their thinking without offending or allowing others to take over the conversation*

**Should I call on students who do not raise their hands?**

**“right to pass”:**

*allow students at the beginning of the year the right to pass. You’ll notice that they may do this at first but as you build the community they do this less and less*

**after partner talk**:

*Often when you give them a chance to share first they are more willing to share or at least have a response from their partner*

**My students will talk, but they won’t listen**

**Set the classroom Norms:**

*remind each students that they have the right to be heard but that this also means an obligation to listen*

**Students Revoice:**

*When students need to revoice then they have to listen*

**Huh?” How do I respond to incomprehensible contributions?**

**Revoicing or repeating**what they have said. After you have done this ask them is this what you meant?

**Record their strategy**on the board and ask them is this what you meant?

**Brilliant, but did anyone understand?**

**I have students at very different levels**

**Pair students in ability groups**:

*Similar abilities with similar abilities. This allows students to contribute at their level and to also struggle at their level. In addition, it allows you as the teacher to differentiate as needed. When you scaffold you can do so by group not by individuals*

**Parallel Tasks**:

*Give students similar tasks but with varying degrees of difficulty (still around the same big idea)*

**What should I do when students are wrong?**

**This discussion is not going anywhere or Students’ answers are so superficial!**

**Use the working on phase as an opportunity to direct your bigger discussion:**

*As you are walking around and looking at work, look for the progression your students are taking. This will lead you to a group discussions. What questions are the students asking themselves? What problems are occurring? What big ideas are they trying to work out, have worked out or are struggling with?*

**Look at the type of questions that you are asking:**

*As teachers we are comfortable asking questions but do our questions already have responses? Are we leading the kids to*

**OUR**thinking or our we allowing the students talk to**LEAD**the thinking. Yes you are very much in control of the discuss and have to lead but it is not**YOUR**thinking but**THEIRS**that should be articulated.*Higher order questions build-upon or go beyond the thinking that is being presented. As a teacher we need to help with the connections in mathematics. Compare student work? Compare strategies, Pros and Cons, naming and identifying. We need to go beyond just show and tell*